How parabolic motion works.
How to define and explain tension.
How to balance torques.
How momentum is conserved.
How gravity creates tides.
How black holes work.
How to measure heat.
How the greenhouse effect works.
How to find the speed of waves.
How capacitors store energy.
How lenses work.
An explanation of photoelectric effect and how to determine how much energy electrons have.
How to understand and find the length of waves.
An explanation of diffraction and how diffraction works.
Understanding how the Doppler Effect works.
Understanding how electric charge is conserved.
How resistors affect electric current.
How to predict the behavior of capacitor circuits.
How convex and concave mirrors work.
How unstable nuclei capture electrons.