Norm Prokup

**Cornell University**

PhD. in Mathematics

Norm was 4th at the 2004 USA Weightlifting Nationals! He still trains and competes occasionally, despite his busy schedule.

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Use the chain rule to find the derivative of the composite of two functions--the derivative of the "outside" function multiplied by the derivative of the "inside" function. The **chain rule** is related to the product rule and the quotient rule, which gives the derivative of the quotient of two functions.

I want to talk about

the chain rule.

The chain rule is how we differentiate

composite functions.

Now let me remind you what

composite functions are.

I have three examples here.

Composite functions are basically when you

take one function and stuff it inside another.

Like here, I have the function X squared

plus 3X plus 4 and then I'm taking

that whole function and raising it to the 12th power.

Here, I have 4X squared plus 9 and that's

being put inside the square root function.

And this last function has 2X cubed minus

5 inside the function E to the X.

It's really important to recognize with

composite functions that there

is an inside function and an outside function.

So to highlight those differences between

inside and outside, I've made the

inside functions always blue here.

And the outside functions are always red.

Each of these functions could be expressed

as F of G of X where G of X is sort

of a general name I'm giving

to the inside function.

F of of X is the outside.

How do you differentiate these?

The answer is the chain rule.

This is the chain rule.

So the derivative of F of G of X is going

to be F prime of G of X times G prime

of X. That's the rule we're going to use.

You differentiate the outside function first,

leave the inside function alone,

then multiply by the derivative

of the inside function.

Let's try that out on this problem.

H of X is -- it's the first

of our examples over there.

So H prime is going to be -- and according

to this formula I differentiate the

outside function first.

Here the outside function

is something to the 12th.

So the derivative is going to be 12 times

something to the 12 minus 1 or 11.

Now, the inside remains unchanged.

The G of X is unchanged

in this first part.

So I just write X squared

plus 3X plus 4.

But we're not done.

We still have to multiply by the

derivative of the inside part.

This is the inside part.

Its derivative is 2X plus

3. Now we're done.

So this is the chain rule.

You differentiate the outside function first,

leave the inside alone, and then

multiply by the derivative

of the inside function.