y = [ x + 1]
If you set what lies inside the brackets to = 0 and solve for x, you will get x = -1.
This creates the point (-1, 0).
At that point, we begin the step function graph process 3 unit down on the y-axis because of the -3 outside the brackets.
We dark in the point (-1, 0) and draw a line from that point going to the right exactly 1 unit repeating the same process making a picture that looks like stairs.
The opposite idea is also true.
The -3 on the outside of the brackets, tells us to bring the entire function down 3 units on the y-axis.
The opposite applies for positive numbers outside the brackets.