You should watch my video on cell division, I spend a lot of time on just those concepts. The short version:Diploid cells have two copies of every kind of chromosome (in humans, there are 23 different kinds numbered 1-22, and then the X & Y chromosomes, so 46 total chromosomes in a cell). Most of your cells are diploid, with a copy of each type of chromosome from your mom and a copy from your dad, giving you 23 pairs. When you make a sperm or egg cell, you'll go through meiosis to make haploid cells which only have one of each kind of chromosome (23 total in humans)DNA forms long double-helical molecules typically called chromosomes. To keep it organized, it gets loosely wrapped around histone proteins and spread throughout the nucleus in a form called chromatin (it means "colored stuff") Before cell division, the molecules are replicated, with the two copies attached to each other. While still together, the two identical molecules are called chromatids.