DNA --transcription--> (m)RNA --translation--> protein
DNA can be made from existing DNA strands during DNA replication, but DNA can also help to create RNA in a process called transcription. There are three types of RNA that can be made: rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA. (In eukaryotes, the RNA must be processed with post-transcriptional modification (addition of the 5' cap, 3' poly-A tail, and splicing) before it can be labeled as mRNA. However, in prokaryotes the RNA does not need processing and is termed mRNA from the get go.)
The mRNA sequence can be read in three base pair increments (codons) by the ribosome complex to make a new protein. This is called translation. Each codon specifies a certain amino acid. tRNAs carrying amino acids will be brought to the complex and a new peptide (protein) will be made according to the sequence of codons on the mRNA.
If you need more information about the specifics of DNA replication, transcription or translation, please feel free to ask. There is a lot more to the process, but the simplified version here still displays the central dogma. DNA helps make RNA which helps make proteins. It's all based on the primary sequence on the template.