It's identifying something based on its genetic makeup. DNA is big, but there are small parts on it that are "highly variable". We can compare these parts, because they are so unique, to determine parentage or identity. Blood stains on carpet can be linked to some guy in prison, or, if we're talking about apples, we can identify lineage.It's cool stuff that has helped a lot of innocent people out of prison, and put a lot of scumbags behind bars. The maths behind it is what you may have heard in CSI or in law. You may have heard something like, "The chances that this isn't the person are 1 in 898 million." This means, basically, that there are only 1 in 898 million people that would have such a sequence of DNA. Wikipedia has an article on it, but nothing beats getting in front of a crowd and telling them who a murderer was.