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# Invertible Square Matrices and Determinants - Problem 1

###### Norm Prokup

###### Norm Prokup

**Cornell University**

PhD. in Mathematics

Norm was 4th at the 2004 USA Weightlifting Nationals! He still trains and competes occasionally, despite his busy schedule.

Let's use our result about determinants and the inverse of a matrix to solve another problem. Remember that result says; a square matrix a is invertible if and only if its determinant is not 0.

Let's see if this matrix is invertible, it's a 3 by 3. A way to check is to take its determinant. 3 by 3 determinant is harder than a 2 by 2. Let me write this out 3 4 1, 3 4 1, 4 6 2. Remember when you're calculating determinants you can simplify first using the row or column operations. For example, I could get some 0's by multiplying this column by -1 and adding it to the second column. Let me do that. That's not going to affect the first or last column, so I'll just copy those down 3 4 1, 4 6 2.

Then -3 plus 3 is going to be 0. -4 plus 4 is going to be 0. -1 plus 1 is going to be 0. These two are equal determinants. Let me just expand this determinant along the middle column. This column right here. Don't forget the pattern; plus minus plus, minus plus minus, plus minus plus.

I'm going down the middle column so I'm going to need minus 0 times whatever plus 0 minus 0. Actually I'm seeing here if I expand down this column, I'm going to get a bunch of 0's. 0 times some minor; that's minus 0, plus this 0 times some other minor, minus this 0 times a minor, it's just all going to be 0. What that tells me is that this matrix is not invertible.

Let's see if we can make some kind of generalisation out of this. Why did we get 0's down this column? Because these two columns are exactly the same. Whenever you have two identical columns, you can multiply one by -1 and add it to the other and get 0's. So whenever a matrix has two identical columns it is not invertible. Further more its determinant will always be 0. Don't forget that; determinant 0, matrix is not invertible when 2 rows or columns are identical.

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###### Norm Prokup

PhD. in Mathematics, University of Rhode Island

B.S. in Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University

He uses really creative examples for explaining tough concepts and illustrates them perfectly on the whiteboard. It's impossible to get lost during his lessons.

Thiswas EXCELLENT! I am a math teacher and have been looking for an easy/logical way to explain the lateral area of a cone to my students and this was incredibly helpful, thank you very much!”

I just learned more In 3 minutes of polygons here than I do in 3 weeks in my math class”

Hahaha, his examples are the same problems of my math HW!”

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